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歌剧女高音知多少?

发表时间:2019-03-05 00:00:00  来源:野望文存  浏览:次   【】【】【

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What Kind of Operatic Soprano are You?

歌剧女高音知多少?

By Katrina Schmidt

Operatic fächer can be confusing, but without knowledge of them you will never fully understand and identify with professional opera singers. Fächer are voice classifications like soprano or alto but indicate more than vocal range. They also categorize voices based on color (light or dark), size, and texture (heavy or light) of a voice.

歌剧的声音分类可能会产生困惑,如果没有足够的专业知识,你将永远不会完全理解并且定义那些专业的歌剧演唱家。Fächer是一种声音分类,像是女高音或者女中音,但是并不单单表示音域。Fächer也基于声音的音色(明亮或低沉),音高和音质(雄厚或锋利)划分声音类型。(译者注:详情参见维基百科https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fach#Soprano_F%C3%A4cher)


Once you identify the various classifications and find which ones you prefer, you will have an easier time choosing operas to attend and music to buy based on your individual tastes. Later when you assign your own voice to a particular fach, it will be easier to choose and learn music appropriate for you. Listed below are the most common types of sopranos. 

当你开始辨别各种各样的分类并且找到你合适的那一类时,你将会轻而易举的选择适合自己的歌剧团并且基于自己的个人喜好选购音乐产品。随后当你可以清楚地划分自己所属的类型时,你可以更容易的选择适合你学习的音乐。下面是最常见的几个女高音类型。

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01

Soprano Acuto Sfogato

轻型高女高音

Soprano acuto sfogatos have the highest vocal range of all sopranos. They can sing and perform with ease above F6. Sometimes informally referred to as stratospheric coloratura sopranos, they have the same tone and weight as either a light or dramatic coloratura and sing the same roles.

轻型高女高音是指在女高音类型中拥有最高音域的女高音。她们可以轻松的演唱超过F6。有时也被称作最高花腔女高音,她们有与轻型或戏剧花腔女高音相同的音色和音质或演唱同样的角色。

·Roles: Same as light or dark coloraturas

·角色:与轻型或重型花腔相同

·Soprano Acuto Sfogato: Susanna Foster  

·轻型高女高音代表人物:苏珊娜·福斯特

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02

Light Coloratura

轻型花腔女高音

A very high and bright voice. Light coloraturas are known for their florid singing. Typical vocal range does not extend past F6 or below C4. Soprano leggero is a less common term referring to a light coloratura with a warmer tone.

一个非常高并且明亮的音部。轻型花腔以她们绚丽的技巧歌唱而闻名。通常来说音域在C4到F6。轻型女高音是一个不常见的术语,一般被提及为更温暖音色的轻型花腔。

·Roles: Juliette in Roméo et Juliette by Gounod, Adele in Die Fledermaus by Johann Strauss Jr.

·角色:古诺的《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中的朱丽叶,小约翰·施特劳斯的《蝙蝠》中的阿黛尔。

·Light Coloratura: Rachele Gilmore

·轻型花腔女高音代表人物:拉凯莱·吉尔莫

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03

Dramatic Coloratura

轻型花腔女高音 

Dramatic coloraturas have the same qualities as light coloraturas, but their voices are darker, heavier, and often larger.

戏剧花腔女高音与轻型花腔女高音有着同样的特质,但相比较而言,她们的声音更雄厚低沉,并且通常音色宽广。

·Roles: Queen of the Night in The Magic Flute by Mozart, Donna Anna in Don Giovanni by Mozart, and Lucia in Lucia di Lammermoor by Donizetti

·角色:莫扎特作品《魔笛》中的夜之女王和《唐璜》中的唐娜·安娜,多尼采蒂作品《拉美莫尔的露契亚》中的露契亚

·Dramatic Coloratura: Joan Sutherland, Diana 

·戏剧花腔女高音代表人物:琼·萨瑟兰,狄安娜·达姆饶

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04

Soubrette

轻型抒情女高音

Soubrettes have a light, bright tone with a slightly lower range extending to C6 or high C. Roles for soubrettes tend to range from flirtatious maids to young boys. Many opera stars starting out as a soubrette, shift into larger more challenging roles in their later careers.

轻型抒情女高音拥有一个轻盈明亮的音色,她们的音域通常可以达到C6,也就是High C。她们的角色通常从调皮的女佣到年轻的男孩。许多歌剧明星是以轻型抒情女高音形象出道,后来的职业生涯中逐渐向成更大更具挑战性的角色转变。

·Roles: Barbarina in The Marriage of Figaro by Mozart, Oscar in The Masked Ball by Verdi, Zerlina in Don Giovanni by Mozart

·角色:莫扎特作品《费加罗的婚礼》中的芭芭丽娜和《唐璜》中的采琳娜,威尔第作品《假面舞会》中的奥斯卡。

·Soubrettes: Kathleen Battle, Dawn Upshaw

·轻型女高音代表人物:凯瑟琳·芭特尔,道恩·厄普肖

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05

·Light Lyric Soprano

轻型抒情女高音

Lyric sopranos are the most common soprano type; lyric meaning light. They sound tender and sweet with a warm, pleasing tone that carries over a full orchestra. They are typically cast in younger roles and often play the lead role in an opera. The light lyric soprano has a warm tone slightly more brilliant and smaller than the full lyric.

轻型抒情女高音是最常见的女高音类型,抒情的意思是轻柔的。她们的声音听上去轻柔并且温暖甜蜜,令人愉悦的音色贯穿整场交响乐。她们的典型角色是年轻人,也通常引领整部歌剧。轻型抒情女高音有着温暖的音色,但比重型抒情女高音的音色稍微明亮,音量较小。

·Roles: Gretel in Hänsel und Gretel by Engelbert Humperdinck, La Contessa in The Marriage of Figaro by Mozart, Elizabeth Doe in The Ballad of Baby Doe by Douglas Moore

·角色:恩格尔贝特·洪佩尔丁克作品《糖果屋》中的格蕾太尔,莫扎特作品《费加罗的婚礼》中的伯爵夫人,道格拉斯·穆尔作品《宝贝朵叙事曲》中的伊丽莎白·朵

·Light Lyrics: Lucia Popp and Anna Moffo

·轻型抒情女高音代表人物:卢西亚·波普,安娜·莫福

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06

Full Lyric Soprano

重型抒情女高音

Full lyrics have a warmer and larger voice than the light lyric soprano.

重型抒情女高音相比轻型抒情女高音有一个更成熟和宽厚的音色。

·Roles: Mimi from La bohème by Puccini, Cio-Cio San in Madama Butterfly by Puccini, Donna Elvira in Don Giovanni by Mozart

·角色:普契尼作品《波希米亚人》中的咪咪和《蝴蝶夫人》中的巧巧桑,莫扎特作品《唐璜》中的唐娜·爱尔维拉。

·Full Lyric: Renée Fleming

·重型抒情女高音代表人物:芮妮·弗莱明

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07

Spinto Soprano

戏剧抒情女高音

Spintos have a heavier and darker sound than the lyric soprano, but not as heavy and dark as the dramatic soprano.

戏剧抒情女高音相比轻型抒情女高音听上去更厚重低沉一些,但是不像是戏剧女高音那样沉郁厚重。

·Roles: Lyric and some dramatic roles

·角色:轻型和一些戏剧女高音角色

·Spintos: Leontyne Price and Renata Tebaldi

·戏剧抒情女高音代表人物:蕾昂泰茵·普莱斯,雷纳塔·泰巴尔迪

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08

Dramatic Soprano

戏剧女高音

Dramatic Sopranos have a darker timbre and significantly more volume than other sopranos. Typically, their voices are a bit lower with a range between C4 or middle C to D6.

戏剧女高音相比其他类型女高音拥有更低沉的音色和更显著的大的音量。通常来说,她们的音域大概在C4(中央C)到D6之间。

·Roles: Title role in Tosca by Puccini, Marschallin in Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss, Minnie in La fanciulla del West by Puccini

·角色:普契尼作品《托斯卡》中的女主角和《西部女郎》中的明妮,理查德·施特劳斯作品《玫瑰骑士》中的玛莎琳

·Dramatic Soprano: Jessye Norman

·戏剧女高音代表人物:杰西·诺曼

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09

Wagnerian Soprano

瓦格纳女高音

Wagnerian sopranos specialize in singing Wagner. Their voices sing over large orchestras of 80 or 100 instruments. Their voices are the darkest, largest, and project the farthest as compared to other sopranos.

瓦格纳女高音是特指演唱瓦格纳作品的女高音者。她们的声音凌驾于80或百人的大型交响乐团之上。她们的声音相比其他类型女高音是最雄厚,最宽广,并且穿透力最强的类型。

·Roles: Isolde inTristan und Isolde by Wagner and Brünnhilde in Die Walküre by Wagner

·角色:瓦格纳作品《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》中的伊索尔德和《女武神》(歌剧四部曲《尼伯龙根指环》第二部)中的布伦希尔特

·Wagnerian Sopranos: Deborah Voigt, Jane Eaglen, and Birgit Nilsson

·瓦格纳女高音代表人物:德勃拉·沃伊特,简·伊格伦,比尔吉特·尼尔森

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Mazurka in A Minor, Op. 17, No. 4: Lento ma non troppo Khatia Buniatishvili - Chopin

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