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李斯特弟子阿瑟·弗里德海姆小传

发表时间:2019-02-07 00:00:00  来源:野望文存  浏览:次   【】【】【

The Banjo - Fantasie Grostesque Arthur Friedheim - Liszt - Rosenthal & Gottschalk

Biography of Arthur Friedheim 

阿瑟·弗里德海姆小传

By Allan Evans


人物简介


阿瑟·弗里德海姆是19世纪著名俄裔钢琴家,自1870起跟随李斯特习琴,并长期担任李斯特的私人秘书。他与李斯特每天的接触与交流见证了许多作曲家本人的表现和思想,李斯特非常欣赏阿瑟的演奏,并对外宣称阿瑟诠释的《B小调奏鸣曲》正如他所希望的那样。弗里德海姆的演奏风格特别,具有高贵气质,他对声音的控制平衡、对乐曲正确的理解被称之为具有“古典主义”的感觉。


The more one reads descriptions of Liszt’s playing, the more one becomes curious to hear the unhearable. Even if Liszt had obliged with a souvenir during his old age, how could it possibly reflect the fiery playing of his virtuoso years, the pianism and compositional growth which activated many directions in Nineteenth-Century music? Taken together, those disciples and piano students of Liszt’s who made recordings left a composite portrait which still remains a mosaic:

当一个人阅读更多关于李斯特演奏的描述就会对其闻所未闻的演奏越好奇。即使李斯特在晚年时期义务性地留下了纪念品(指导年轻的钢琴家并将自己对音乐的理解和音乐创新的看法分享给年轻人),但他所引领的19世纪浪漫派音乐,其如火般的演奏技巧和大胆创新的作曲技法又从何体现呢?总而言之,李斯特学生们曾录制过的唱片留下一幅马赛克似的拼接肖像:

Papillons Arthur Friedheim - Liszt - Rosenthal & Gottschalk


Sauer drew on Liszt’s inspiration, Siloti transformed his contact into an expanding mystical experience. Arthur Friedheim is unique among all Liszt’s pupils for the dignity and understanding with which he accepted the role as Liszt’s prophet, striving to spread the aesthetic, style and visionary quality of the composer whom he served as secretary, pupil and amaneunsis for nearly six years.

绍尔(Emil von Sauer)借鉴了李斯特的灵感,西洛蒂(Alexander Siloti)将他的经历转化成一种不断扩大的神秘体验。而弗里德海姆是李斯特的所有学生中,最为独一无二的一位,因为他理解并接受李斯特晚期作为先知者的角色在接近六年里,他又以李斯特秘书和学生的身份来努力传播作曲家的理想主义、美学思想、音乐风格等。

Such a role easily leads to exaggeration: in fact during Friedheim’s youth he was chided for copying Liszt’s mannerisms. By the time he recorded, Friedheim had passed into a stage marked by a mature interpretive style. What is most fascinating is his projecting Liszt in a classic, Apollonian manner, seeking to remind all of Liszt’s legitime right to a realm within music’s pantheon. Improvements in restoration have exposed more layers of detail on his primitively recorded discs, leaving the surprising impression of an interpretive style very close to Busoni’s. Busoni infused every work with his sardonic, Mephistophelian world view, supported by a transcendent technique.

这样的角色很容易被夸大其词:事实上,在弗里德海姆年轻的时候, 他因为模仿李斯特的举止而受到指责。在他录制唱片的时候,成熟的诠释风格已经成为他的代名词了。最令人叹为观止的地方是, 他以和谐、有序、理性、平静的阿波罗方式来投射李斯特的音乐在“音乐万神殿”中的崇高地位。更多弗里德海姆音乐上处理细节在修复后的原始唱片中浮出水面,惊奇地发现其演奏风格与布索尼那充满讽刺及魔鬼般的演奏风格非常接近。

Hungarian Rhapsody No. 9 In E Flat Major Arthur Friedheim - Liszt - Rosenthal & Gottschalk


Like Busoni, Friedheim was a technical wizard: while Liszt’s Feux Follets is taken at an electrifying tempo, the bold architectonic delineating of the phrases, long line and their natural flow masks digital feats which pass by innocuously. His beautiful tone infuses each note, even rapid scale passages which become washes of warmth and color. The Chopin Scherzo indicates a hyper-sensitivity to tone and mastery of its projection.

就像布索尼那样,弗里德海姆也是一个技术无懈可击的奇才,他演奏的鬼火(Feux Follets)虽然采用了如闪电般的速度,但并没有掩盖他对乐句如建筑般既立体又流动的处理。他对每个音的音色控制都细腻极致,即使是在一些快速的段落都体现得淋漓尽致,他弹奏的肖邦谐谑曲体现出极具敏感的触键和精湛的表现力。

(译者注:作者没有说明具体是哪一首肖邦谐谑曲,检索弗里德海姆曾出版过的唱片来看,只有降B小调的谐谑曲记录在案,所以作者提及的肖邦谐谑曲应该就是肖邦第二首谐谑曲《Chopin Scherzo in B-flat minor, Op.31》)

Friedheim stand far apart from the indulgent taste for witty grotesquery which Busoni’s de-constructing utilized as a critical element, a running commentary on music while executing it. Differences aside, it was Friedheim who furthered Busoni’s comprehension of Liszt. Dent writes:“ He gave him useful suggestions about certain works of Liszt which he had often heard Liszt play, and pleased Busoni by telling him that he had ‘arrived’ in spite of not being one of Liszt’s pupils.”

弗里德海姆在音乐理解和音乐品味与布索尼在处理音乐中放任地使用诙谐元素的怪癖相去甚远。撇开分歧不谈,布索尼对李斯特进一步的理解离不开弗里德海姆的建议。登特写道:“在那些弗里德海姆经常听李斯特自己演奏的作品中,他曾给予布索尼有用的建议,并告诉布索尼虽不是李斯特的学生,但是已经到达了李斯特学生所具有的高度.”

Legendes: St. Francois De Paule Marchand Sur Les Flots Arthur Friedheim - Liszt - Rosenthal & Gottschalk


Our ears are by now accustomed to a classic approach (as opposed to Dionysian, for pianists of the latter belief are long gone) yet Friedheim’s classicism has the same sense of struggle marking new music which seeks to astound with its innovation. This is an archaic classicism, one that has vanished as the Apollonian, aided by dry musicology and dull but correct playing editions, has become a decadent and ignorant closure.

虽然我们的耳朵现在早已经习惯了经典的诠释方法(与酒神相反,因为有这种信仰的钢琴家早已不复存在)但是弗里德海姆的古典主义在新音乐的革新中也面临同样的挣扎。这种陈旧的古典主义随着阿波罗主义的消失和枯燥无味的音乐学研究中以衰落和消亡收场。

As indispensible as his recordings, Friedheim was a profundly gifted writer whose unpublished manuscripts were edited into Life and Liszt , an essential document which conveys his now-historic existence and the philosophical stance with which he confronted the world. He was also a man of great humor and wit:

弗里德海姆的书稿与他的录音一样不可或缺,他是一位极具天赋的作家,他未出版的手稿最后被编辑成 Life and Liszt,这份重要纪实文献具有很高的存在意义,因为它传达了作家哲学般的世界观。弗里德海姆是一个既幽默又有智慧的人:

(译者注: 《Life and Liszt》一书记述了李斯特生平回忆以及作者弗里德海姆对恩师李斯特的怀念。讲述了李斯特职业生涯中作为老师、钢琴演奏家、作曲家等各种身份,也包含弗里德海姆本人的相关文献资料。)

Grandes Etudes De Paganini, No. 3 La Campanella Arthur Friedheim - Liszt - Rosenthal & Gottschalk


Friedheim’s closest friend was Moriz Rosenthal. Both pianists would flex their university-days Latin and Greek by conversing in these archaic tongues. Friedheim’s son Eric told this writer that his father devoured two branches of literature: Philosophy, as distilled by Schopenhauer, and Intrigue, for the young Eric’s duty was to obtain Detective Story Magazine for his father as soon as the latest issue reached the newsstands.

弗里德海姆最亲密的朋友是莫里兹·罗森塔尔(也是李斯特的学生),两位钢琴家会用他们在大学时期学过的拉丁文和希腊文来交流。弗里德海姆的儿子埃里克曾告诉作者,他爸爸对两大类的书籍很感兴趣,如叔本华的哲学和侦探类杂志,他小时候的任务就是要去报摊为爸爸买到最新一期的《侦探故事杂志》。

Friedheim had studied with Anton Rubinstein before heading to Weimar. He brought Liszt his own piano concerto, which Liszt accompanied at the second piano. Juggling concerts with composition, Friedheim worked on an opera, The Last Days of Pompeii . He composed throughout his life and tragically, many manuscripts were destroyed in a fire and from the chaos of the Second World War. As a teacher he highly influenced his pupils:

弗里德海姆在前往魏玛跟随李斯特之前曾跟安东鲁宾斯坦学琴。他去找李斯特上课的时候弹了李斯特的钢琴协奏曲,李斯特在另外一台钢琴上为其协奏。在一场作曲音乐会中,他创作了他的歌剧《庞贝的最后日子》,很可惜的是,他大部分的手稿都毁于第二次世界大战的战火中。作为老师,他的教学方法和人格魅力影响着他的学生们:

 Rildia Bee Cliburn trained her son Van Cliburn in Friedheim’s way.Colin McPhee, who studied with Friedheim in Toronto, went on to become a great writer and innovator who brought Balinese and Javanese gamelan music to the West. Friedheim wrote of him:

美国著名钢琴家范·克莱本(Van Cliburn)的妈妈(Rildia Bee Cliburn)就是他的学生之一,之后还用他的方法来训练自己的儿子。另外一位是科林·麦克菲(Colin McPhee),他曾在多伦多跟随弗里德海姆学钢琴,并成为一个伟大作曲家和音乐创新者,他把印度巴尼岛和爪哇的加曼兰音乐带到了西方国家。弗里德海姆曾写道:

Hungarian Rhapsody No. 10 In E Major (E大调第10号匈牙利狂想曲) Arthur Friedheim - Liszt - Rosenthal & Gottschalk


“I have received from far-off Java a letter from. . . Colin McPhee, perhaps the most gifted pupil I ever had. I felt a personal sense of loss when, after I left Canada, he gave up the piano altogether and applied himself entirely to composition. Now he is in Java and other distant lands, seeking new inspiration in the relatively unfamiliar native music. Yet I must not criticise him because he has neglected my favorite instrument. Did I not do the same thing when I was his age?”

“ 我收到了一封科林·麦克菲从爪哇寄来的信,他也许是我遇到过最有天赋的学生,令我感到失落的是,当我离开加拿大后, 这位学生放弃了钢琴并把他的全部精力投入到作曲中。现在他远在爪哇,在相对陌生的本土音乐中寻找新的灵感。我不能因为他忽略了我最喜爱的乐器而去批评他,在我年轻的时候,我不也没有做同样的事情吗?

Friedheim recounts his meetings with Emile Zola, Turgeniev, Liszt, Bulow, Bruckner, Brahms and the deep friendship with Saint-Saens which fell apart when Friedheim and Rosenthal pressured their colleague to speak out for Dreyfuss.

弗里德海姆叙述与他接触过的埃米尔·佐拉(Emile Zola)、图尔根耶夫(Turgeniev)、李斯特(Franz Liszt)、布洛(Hans von Bülov)、布吕克纳 (Bruckner)、勃拉姆斯 (Brahms),还有曾经有过深厚友谊的圣桑,但是这段友谊以破裂告终,因为弗里德海姆和罗森塔尔向他们的同事施压,希望他们为德雷福斯事件发声。

(译者注:德雷福斯丑闻这是19世纪末发生在法国的一起政治事件,事件主人公Alfred Dreyfus是一名法国犹太裔军官,由于被误判叛国罪爆发法国社会严重的冲突和争议,事件与1906年被平凡,德雷福斯也成为国家英雄。)

Friedheim’s too-few recordings and lucid perceptive writing conveys with striking modernity the essence of how a progressive mind and devoted artist interacted with the central cultural figure of his age and the after-effects of this experience translated into sound and words.

弗里德海姆少数的录音和他有深度的文字对现代影响深远,其传达出一个思想进步艺术家是如何孜孜不倦地和他同时代的主要文化人物互动交流并这些经历转化为声音与文字。

 

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责任编辑:许战泉