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不该错过的作曲家丨他是“瑞典的莫扎特”

发表时间:2019-02-06 00:00:00  来源:野望文存  浏览:次   【】【】【

Sonata In C-Groot For Fortepiano And Violin: Adagio Antoinette Lohmann/Frank Wakelkamp/Vaughan Schlepp - Kraus: Sonatas & Trio

Back to Kraus and Mozart!

追溯到克劳斯和莫扎特时期

By Theresia

In our next concerts, we’ll perform music both by Kraus, one of our favourite composers, and by MozartTheresias fans know it: we love Joseph Martin Kraus, and we have a special chemistry with this composer. His music is surprising, his life is fascinating. Plus, theres one particular oddity that makes him a bit more special: 

在下一场音乐会中,我们将演奏我们最喜欢的作曲家克劳斯和莫扎特的音乐。特蕾西亚的粉丝知道:我们爱约瑟夫·马丁·克劳斯并且和这位作曲家有着特殊的感情。他的音乐令人惊讶,他的生活也是扑朔迷离。除此之外还有一个特殊之处在于:

Kraus was born the very same year as Mozart (1756) and died just one year later (1792). This is the reason why he is called the Swedish Mozart, or the Mozart from Odenwald. Yet, his music is not as worldwide renowned as Mozarts. One may think this is partly because he spent almost his entire professional life in Stockholm, as Kapellmeister of the King of Sweden.

克劳斯1756年和莫扎特同年出生,在莫扎特去世一年后离世。这就是为什么叫他“瑞典莫扎特”或“奥登瓦尔德的莫扎特”然而,他的音乐并不像莫扎特那样享誉全球。 人们可能会认为,这是因为他在斯德哥尔摩度过了几乎整个职业生涯,他是瑞典国王的管弦乐队长。

Sonata In D Major For Harpsichord Or Fortepiano, Violin And Cello: Largo Pero Con Moto Antoinette Lohmann/Frank Wakelkamp/Vaughan Schlepp - Kraus: Sonatas & Trio


Kraus was born in Miltenberg am Main, Germany. His parents wanted him to become a lawyer, and he matriculated as a student of law at the University of Mainz in 1773. But he managed to change his destiny, moving to the University of Erfurt, where he could study music too. Anyway, he continued to be a law student, eventually in Gottingen, where he came into contact with new “Sturm und Drang” ideas, which influenced both his writing and his music.

克劳斯出生在德国的米尔滕贝格。他的父母希望他成为一名律师,他于1773年在美因茨大学注册成为法律系学生。但他成功地改变了自己的命运,转学到了埃尔弗特大学,在那里他也可以学习音乐。不管怎样,他仍然是一名法律系的学生,最终在戈廷根,在那里他接触了崭新的狂飙运动思想,这影响了他的音乐创作。

Encounters can determine our fate, and so it was with Kraus too: in Gottingen, he had become friendly with a Swedish fellow student, Carl Stridsberg. He persuaded Kraus to accompany him to Stockholm to apply for a position at the court of King Gustav III. After three years of misery, King Gustav III eventually noticed him: 

相遇可以决定我们的命运,克劳斯也是如此。在戈廷根,他和瑞典学生卡尔·斯特里德斯伯格变得友好了。他说服克劳斯陪他到斯德哥尔摩向国王古斯塔夫三世申请了一个音乐职位。在经历了三年的沉寂的痛苦之后,古斯塔夫三世终于注意到了他:

Sonata In D Major For Harpsichord Or Fortepiano, Violin And Cello: Allegro Moderato Antoinette Lohmann/Frank Wakelkamp/Vaughan Schlepp - Kraus: Sonatas & Trio


Kraus wrote the music for the opera “Proserpin”, which was successfully premiered at Ulriksdal Palace on 6 June 1781, before the King and the royal household. Kraus was appointed vice-Kapellmeister of the Royal Swedish Opera and director of the Royal Academy of Music.

克劳斯为歌剧《普洛塞尔皮娜》谱写了音乐。1781年6月6日这部歌剧在乌尔里克斯代尔宫国王和王室面前成功首演。克劳斯被任命为瑞典皇家歌剧院副院长兼皇家音乐学院院长。

It was the long-awaited breakthrough. Dizzy with the success, Kraus wrote to his parents:Immediately after the music ended, the king talked to me for more than a quarter of an hour it had simply given him so much satisfaction. Yesterday I was engaged by him. Of course, I was not granted any great title, but quite simple that of Kapellmeister. What is worth much more to me than 600 guilders is the favour I have been granted, which is that I am to undertake a journey to Germany, France and Italy at the Kings expense.

这是期待已久的突破。克劳斯对这一成功感到头晕目眩,于是写信给他的父母:音乐一结束,国王就和我谈了一刻钟多……这短暂的交谈使国王十分满意昨天他将我签约下来。当然,我并没有被授予任何伟大的头衔,仅任命我为管弦乐队长。对我来说,比600荷兰盾薪酬更值钱的是我得到的恩惠,那就是我将去德国、法国和意大利旅行,费用由国王支付。”

Sonata In C-Groot For Fortepiano And Violin: Scherzo Allegretto Antoinette Lohmann/Frank Wakelkamp/Vaughan Schlepp - Kraus: Sonatas & Trio


Gustav III sent Kraus on a Grand Tour of Europe that lasted five years, to learn all he could about Theater abroad. On this trip, Kraus met Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Padre Martini and Joseph Haydn.

古斯塔夫三世派克劳斯进行为期五年的欧洲大巡回演出,尽他所能了解国外剧院的一切情况。在这次旅行中,克劳斯会见了克利斯朵夫·威廉博尔德·格鲁克、约翰·乔治·阿尔布雷希茨伯格、帕德雷·马蒂尼和约瑟夫·海顿。

 In 1773 Kraus was in Vienna, where he wrote the C minor Symphony VB 142: the minor key and the mood of Symphony VB 142 seem to be reminiscent of Haydn’s Sturm und Drang period around 1770. It is believed that Kraus wrote this Symphony for Haydn. And we know for sure that Haydn had a very high opinion of the work; as a matter of fact, many years after Kraus’s death, Haydn remarked to a common friend, Swedish diplomat Fredrik Samuel Silverstolpe:

1773年克劳斯在维也纳,在那里他创作了《C小调交响曲》(VB.142)的乐思似乎让人想起了海顿1770年前后的狂飙运动时期。据说是克劳斯为海顿写的交响曲。我们可以肯定地知道,海顿对这项工作有很高的评价;事实上,在克劳斯去世许多年后,海顿对一位共同的朋友、瑞典外交官弗雷德里克·塞缪尔·西尔弗斯特普说:

Sonata In E-Flat Major For Fortepiano And Violin: Andantino Con Variazioni Antoinette Lohmann/Frank Wakelkamp/Vaughan Schlepp - Kraus: Sonatas & Trio


“The symphony he wrote here in Vienna especially for me will be regarded as a masterpiece for centuries to come; believe me, there are few people who can compose something like that.”What else happened in Vienna? 

他在维也纳特别是为我写的交响曲,将被视为未来几个世纪的杰作;相信我,很少有人能谱写这样的作品。”维也纳还发生了什么?

Somewhere else in this blog we wrote about the mystery of the meeting of Kraus and Mozart: nobody really knows if they actually met. Yet, we can imagine it, and, moreover, we can enjoy a sort of virtual and contemporary encounter playing their composition.

在这个博客里我们写了关于克劳斯和莫扎特会面之谜尚未可知,没有人真正知道他们是否真的相遇了。然而,我们可以想象,而且我们还可以享受一种虚拟的和当代的相遇,使这两位作曲家的作品同台上映。

Mozart Symphony 36, KV 425, 4 The St Petra Russian Symphony Orchestra - Classical Music For Rainy Days

 


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